Research & Development

PExA’s strategy for research is to co-operate with leading international research groups and carry on the work performed over the past few years in identifying biomarkers for various lung diseases.

In parallel with this work, PExA is running a development project to further develop, streamline and simplify the PExA method to collect particles from the small airways.

To date, studies have been conducted comparing diseased and healthy individuals, smokers and non-smokers, individuals exposed to a certain environmental impact and those who have not been exposed as well as similar comparative studies. Research based on the PExA method has led to numerous studies.

In 2013, a collaboration with AstraZeneca was started up and extended in December 2015. The objective of the co-operation is to clarify the opportunities for AstraZeneca to use PExA in its own research and development activities within industrial pharmaceutical research. This partnership is especially important because AstraZeneca helps to validate the method and explore its possibilities and potential through the work that they do.

PExA Publications

Almstrand AC, Ljungstrom E, Lausmaa J, Bake B, Sjovall P, Olin AC. Airway monitoring by collection and mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled particles. Anal Chem. 2009; 81:662-8.
Almstrand AC, Bake B, Ljungström E, Larsson P, Bredberg A, Mirgorodskaya E, Olin AC. Effect of Airway Opening on Production of Exhaled Particles. J Appl Physiol 2010;108:584-8
Holmgren H, Ljungström E, Almstrand A-C, Bake B, Olin A-C. Size distribution of exhaled particles in the range from 0.01 to 2.0 μm. Journal ofAerosol Science 2010;41:439-446
Holmgren H, Bake B, Olin A-C, Ljungström E. Relation between humidity and size of exhaled particles. Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 2011;24:254-60
Larsson L Mirgorodskaya E, Andersson L, Bake B, Almstrand A, Bredberg A, Olin A-C Surfactant protein A and albumin in particles in exhaled air. Respir Med 2012; 106:197-204
Almstrand AC, Josefson M, Ljungstrom E, Lausmaa J, Bredberg A, Sjovall P, Larsson P, Olin AC. TOF-SIMS analysis of exhaled particles from patients with asthma and healthy controls. Eur Respir J 2012;39:59-66.
Bredberg A, Gobom J, Almstrand A-C, Larsson P, Blennow K, Olin A-C, Mirgorodskaya E. Exhaled endogenous particles contain lung proteins. Clin Chem 2012; 58:431-40.
Olin AC. Induced sputum, exhaled nitric oxide, and particles in exhaled air in assessing airways inflammation in occupational exposures. Clin Chest Med. 2012;33:771-82.
Holmgren H, Gerth E, Ljungström E, Larsson P, Almstrand AC, Bake B, Olin AC. Effects of breath holding at low and high lung volumes on amount of exhaled particles. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2013;185:228-34.
Bredberg A, Josefson M, Almstrand AC, Lausmaa J, Sjövall P, Levinsson A, Larsson P, Olin AC. Comparison of exhaled endogenous particles from smokers and non-smokers using multivariate analysis. Respiration. 2013;86(2):135-42.
Emilsson OI, Gíslason T, Olin AC, Janson C, Olafsson I. Biomarkers for gastroesophageal reflux in respiratory diseases. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2013;2013:148086.
Olin AC. Particles in Exhaled Air—A novel method of sampling of-non-volatiles in exhaled air. In Volatile Biomarkers. Editor Amann A.
Bredberg A, Ljungkvist, G , Taube, F, Ljungstrom, E , Larsson, P , Mirgorodskaya, E Isaxon, C , Gudmundsson, A , Forsgard, N, Olin, AC Analysis of manganese and iron in exhaled endogenous particles. J Analyt Antomic Spect 2014:29:730 -735
Lärstad M, Almstrand A-C, Larsson P, Bake B, Larsson S, Ljungström E, Mirgorodskaya E, Olin A-C. Surfactant protein A in exhaled endogenous particles is decreased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: a pilot study. PLoS One 2015 Dec
Larsson P, Lärstad M, Bake B, Hammar O, Bredberg A, Almstrand A-C, Mirgorodskaya E, Olin A-C Exhaled particles as markers of small airway inflammation in subjects with asthma. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging, 2015
Beck O, Olin AC, Mirgorodskaya E. Potential of Mass Spectrometry in Developing Clinical Laboratory Biomarkers of Nonvolatiles in Exhaled Breath. Clin Chem. 2016;62(1):84-91.
Emilsson ÖI, Benediktsdóttir B, Ólafsson Í, Cook E, Júlíusson S, Björnsson ES, Guðlaugsdóttir S, Guðmundsdóttir AS, Mirgorodskaya E, Ljungström E, Arnardóttir ES, Gíslason Þ, Janson C, Olin AC. Respiratory symptoms, sleep-disordered breathing and biomarkers in nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux. Respir Res. 2016.
Ericson P, Mirgorodskaya E, Hammar O, Viklund E, Almstrand A-C, Larsson P, Riise G, Olin A-C . Low levels of exhaled surfactant protein A associated with BOS after lung transplantation. Transplantation Direct 2016
Bake B, Ljungström E, Claesson A, Krage Carlsen H, Olin AC., Exhaled Particles After a Standardized Breathing Maneuver. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2017
Ildiko Horváth, Peter J. Barnes, et al. A European Respiratory Society technical standard: exhaled biomarkers in lung disease. European Respiratory Journal, 2017
Larsson P, Bake B., et al. The effect of exhalation flow on endogenous particle emission and phospholipid composition. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2017
Ljungkvist G, et al. Two techniques to sample non-volatiles in breath—exemplified by methadone Journal of Breath Research, 2017
Broberg E, et al. A new way of monitoring mechanical ventilation by measurement of particle flow from the Airways using Pexa method in vivo and during ex vivo lung perfusion in DCD lung transplantation Intensive Care Medicine Experimental, 2018
Soares M, et al. Particles in exhaled air (PExA): non-invasive phenotyping of small airways disease in adult asthma Journal of Breath research, 2018

PExA 2.0

PExA 2.0 has been developed on the basis of the instrument developed at the Sahlgrenska Academy in nine specimens (PExA 1.0) and...



Suitable standard methods that can be used for analysis include ELISA, MS, LC and HPLC. As a service to those customers who...



For each sampling, disposable items are required such as substrate surfaces and nozzles. These components...